As LAN bandwidth has increased beyond gigabit speeds, other components of a computer have become bottlenecks, limiting network performance. For example, a computer connected to a 10-gigabit network might not be able to saturate the link fully because the processor would be fully utilized processing network traffic.
Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008 support the following scalable networking technologies (which require compatible hardware):
- TCP Chimney Offload The computer's processor must assemble data from multiple
TCP packets into a single network segment. TCP Chimney Offload allows the network
adapter to handle the task of segmenting TCP data for outgoing packets, reassembling
data from incoming packets, and acknowledging sent and received data. TCP Chimney
Offload is not compatible with QoS or adapter teaming drivers developed for earlier
versions of Windows. TCP Chimney Offload does not change how non-TCP packets are
handled, including Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP), ICMP, and UDP. TCP Chimney Offload still requires the operating
system to process every application input/output (I/O). Therefore, it primarily benefits
large transfers, and chatty applications that transmit small amounts of data will see
little benefit. For example, file or streaming media servers can benefit significantly.
However, a database server that is sending 100-500 bytes of data to and from the
database might see little or no benefit.
Note To examine TCP Chimney Offload performance testing data, read "Boosting Data Transfer with TCP Offload Engine Technology" at http://www.dell.com/downloads /global/power/ps3q06-20060132-broadcom.pdf and "Enabling Greater Scalability and Improved File Server Performance with the Windows Server 2003 Scalable Networking Pack and Alacritech Dynamic TCP Offload" at http://www.alacritech.com/Resources /Files/File_Serving_White_Paper.pdf. For more information about TCP Chimney Offload, read "Full TCP Offload" at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa503758.aspx.
- Receive-side scaling (RSS) With NDIS 6.0 and in Windows Vista, Windows 7, and
Windows Server 2008, incoming packets can be processed by multiple processors.
In earlier versions of Windows, packets had to be processed by a single processor.
Because more new computers have multiple cores and processors, this can alleviate an
important bottleneck when used with a network adapter that supports RSS.
Note For detailed information about RSS, read "Scalable Networking: Eliminating the Receive Processing Bottleneck-Introducing RSS" at http://download.microsoft.com/download/5/D/6/5D6EAF2B-7DDF-476B-93DC-7CF0072878E6/NDIS_RSS.doc.
- NetDMA NetDMA moves data directly from one location in the computer's main memory directly to another location without requiring the data to be moved through the processor, reducing the processor overhead. NetDMA requires the underlying hardware platform to support a technology such as Intel I/O Acceleration Technology (Intel I/OAT). NetDMA and TCP Chimney Offload are not compatible. If a network adapter supports both NetDMA and TCP Chimney Offload, Windows Vista and Windows 7 will use TCP Chimney Offload.
- IPsec Offload IPsec authentication and encryption requires some processor overhead. Although the IPsec generated by a typical workstation will not significantly affect processor utilization, a workstation that is transferring large amounts of data (typically at greater than gigabit speeds) can dedicate a significant amount of processing time to IPsec. IPsec Offload moves IPsec processing to the network adapter, which typically has a processor optimized for handling authentication and encryption tasks.
In this tutorial:
- Configuring Windows Networking
- Usability Improvements
- Network And Sharing Center
- Network Explorer
- How Windows Finds Network Resources
- How Windows Publishes Network Resources
- How Windows Creates the Network Map
- Network Map
- Set Up A Connection Or Network Wizard
- Manageability Improvements
- Network Location Types
- Policy-Based QoS
- Selecting DSCP Values
- Planning Traffic Throttling
- Configuring QoS Policies
- Configuring System-Wide QoS Settings
- Configuring Advanced QoS Settings
- Testing QoS
- Windows Firewall and IPsec
- Windows Connect Now in Windows 7
- Core Networking Improvements
- Networking BranchCache
- How Hosted Cache Works
- How Distributed Cache Works
- Configuring BranchCache
- BranchCache Protocols
- File Sharing Using SMB
- Web Browsing with HTTP (Including HTTPS)
- Efficient Networking
- What Causes Latency, How to Measure It, and How to Control It
- TCP Receive Window Scaling
- Scalable Networking
- Improved Reliability
- IPv6 Support
- 802.1X Network Authentication
- Server Message Block (SMB) 2.0
- Strong Host Model
- Wireless Networking
- Improved APIs
- Network Awareness
- Improved Peer Networking
- Services Used by Peer-to-Peer Networking
- Managing Peer-to-Peer Networking
- Peer-to-Peer Name Resolution
- EAP Host Architecture
- Layered Service Provider (LSP)
- Windows Sockets Direct Path for System Area Networks
- How to Configure Wireless Settings
- Configuring Wireless Settings Manually
- Using Group Policy to Configure Wireless Settings
- How to Configure TCP/IP
- Configuring IP Addresses Manually
- Command Line and Scripts
- How to Connect to AD DS Domains
- How to Connect to a Domain When 802.1X Authentication Is Not Enabled
- How to Connect to a Domain When 802.1X Authentication Is Enabled