ChkDsk Process on NTFS Volumes
When you run ChkDsk on NTFS volumes, the ChkDsk process consists of three major stages and two optional stages. ChkDsk displays its progress for each stage with the following messages.
Windows is verifying files (stage 1 of 5)...
File verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying indexes (stage 2 of 5)...
Index verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying security descriptors (stage 3 of 5)...
Security descriptor verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying file data (stage 4 of 5)...
File data verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying free space (stage 5 of 5)...
Free space verification completed.
The following list describes each of the ChkDsk stages.
- Stage 1: ChkDsk verifies each file record segment in the Master File Table
During stage 1, ChkDsk examines each file record segment in the volume's Master File
Table (MFT). A specific file record segment in the MFT uniquely identifies every file and
directory on an NTFS volume. The percentage complete that ChkDsk displays during
this phase is the percentage of the MFT that has been verified.
The percentage complete indicator advances relatively smoothly throughout this phase, although some unevenness might occur. For example, file record segments that are not in use require less time to process than do those that are in use, and larger security descriptors take more time to process than do smaller ones. Overall, the percentage complete indicator is a fairly accurate representation of the actual time required for that phase.
- Stage 2: ChkDsk checks the directories in the volume During stage 2, ChkDsk
examines each of the indexes (directories) on the volume for internal consistency and
verifies that every file and directory represented by a file record segment in the MFT is
referenced by at least one directory. ChkDsk also confirms that every file or subdirectory
referenced in each directory actually exists as a valid file record segment in the MFT
and checks for circular directory references. ChkDsk then confirms that the timestamps
and the file size information associated with files are up to date in the directory listings
for those files.
The percentage complete that ChkDsk displays during this phase is the percentage of the total number of files on the volume that are checked. For volumes with many thousands of files and folders, the time required to complete this stage can be significant.
The duration of stage 2 varies because the amount of time required to process a directory is closely tied to the number of files or subdirectories listed in that directory. Because of this dependency, the percentage complete indicator might not advance smoothly during stage 2, though the indicator continues to advance even for large directories. Therefore, do not use the percentage complete indicator as a reliable representation of the actual time remaining for this phase.
- Stage 3: ChkDsk verifies the security descriptors for each volume During stage
3, ChkDsk examines each of the security descriptors associated with each file and
directory on the volume by verifying that each security descriptor structure is well
formed and internally consistent. The percentage complete that ChkDsk displays during
this phase is the percentage of the number of files and directories on the volume
that are checked.
The percentage complete indicator advances relatively smoothly throughout this phase, although some unevenness might occur.
- Stage 4: ChkDsk verifies file data During stage 4 (which is optional), ChkDsk
verifies all clusters in use. ChkDsk performs stages 4 and 5 if you specify the /r
parameter when you run ChkDsk. The /r parameter confirms that the sectors in each
cluster are usable. Specifying the /r parameter is usually not necessary, because NTFS
identifies and remaps bad sectors during the course of normal operations, but you can
use the /r parameter if you suspect the disk has bad sectors.
The percentage complete that ChkDsk displays during stage 4 is based on the percentage of used clusters that are checked. Used clusters typically take longer to check than unused clusters, so stage 4 lasts longer than stage 5 on a volume with equal numbers of used and unused clusters. For a volume with mostly unused clusters, stage 5 takes longer than stage 4.
- Stage 5: ChkDsk verifies free space During stage 5 (which is optional), ChkDsk verifies unused clusters. ChkDsk performs stage 5 only if you specify the /r parameter when you run ChkDsk. The percentage complete that ChkDsk displays during stage 5 is the percentage of unused clusters that are checked.
In this tutorial:
- Troubleshooting Hardware, Driver, and Disk Issues
- Windows 7 Improvements for Hardware and Driver Troubleshooting
- Windows Troubleshooting Platform
- Built-in Troubleshooting Packs
- Windows Troubleshooting Platform Components
- Creating Custom Troubleshooting Packs
- Running Troubleshooting Packs Remotely
- Windows 7 Reliability Monitor
- Windows 7 Resource Monitor
- Windows Memory Diagnostics
- Disk Failure Diagnostics
- Self-Healing NTFS
- Improved Driver Reliability
- Improved Error Reporting
- The Process of Troubleshooting Hardware Issues
- How to Troubleshoot Problems That Prevent Windows from Starting
- How to Troubleshoot Problems Installing New Hardware
- How to Troubleshoot Problems with Existing Hardware
- How to Troubleshoot Unpredictable Symptoms
- How to Diagnose Hardware Problems
- How to Use Device Manager to Identify Failed Devices
- How to Check the Physical Setup of Your Computer
- How to Check the Configuration of Your Hardware
- How to Verify That System Firmware and Peripheral Firmware Are Up to Date
- How to Test Your Hardware by Running Diagnostic Tools
- How to Simplify Your Hardware Configuration
- How to Diagnose Disk-Related Problems
- How to Use Built-In Diagnostics
- How to Use Reliability Monitor
- How to Use Event Viewer
- How to Use Data Collector Sets
- How to Use Windows Memory Diagnostics
- Memory Failures
- How Windows Automatically Detects Memory Problems
- How to Schedule Windows Memory Diagnostics
- How to Start Windows Memory Diagnostics When Windows Is Installed
- How to Start Windows Memory Diagnostics from the Windows DVD
- How to Configure Windows Memory Diagnostics
- How to Troubleshoot Disk Problems
- How to Prepare for Disk Failures
- How to Use ChkDsk
- ChkDsk Examples
- ChkDsk Syntax
- How to Use the Graphical ChkDsk Interface
- How to Determine Whether ChkDsk Is Scheduled to Run
- ChkDsk Process on NTFS Volumes
- How to Use the Disk Cleanup Wizard
- How to Disable Nonvolatile Caching
- How to Troubleshoot Driver Problems
- How to Find Updated Drivers
- How to Roll Back Drivers in Windows 7
- How to Use Driver Verifier
- How to Use the File Signature Verification
- How to Use Device Manager to View and Change Resource Usage
- How to Use Windows 7 System Restore
- How to Troubleshoot USB Problems
- How to Solve USB Driver and Hardware Problems
- Understanding USB Limitations
- How to Identify USB Problems Using Performance Monitor
- How to Examine USB Hubs
- How to Troubleshoot Bluetooth Problems
- Troubleshooting Tools
- Process Monitor