Prepare for the eventual attack
You can take certain steps to prepare a UNIX workstation for the inevitable attack. From a security perspective, these steps are usually put under the category of incident response or disaster recovery.
Preparing for an attack is a three-part process-backup, inventory, and detection.
- The frequency and extent of the backups (copying data and files and moving
them off the workstation) should be determined by the risk of losing the files or
data. The more frequently the data changes and the more critical would be the
loss, the more frequent the backups should be. It is not uncommon in a rapid
development environment to see several backups daily. However, other environments,
such as a home user environment, might do weekly or monthly backups.
Backups should be done in a manner consistent with the sensitivity and attention given to the workstation. In most cases, daily backups are recommended.
A normal backup cycle is for incremental backups to be done every day and full backups to be done on Friday. How long the backups will be kept or, in the case of reusable media, re-used depends on the sensitivity and attention placed on the workstation. The more sensitive the data, the longer the backups should be kept. In some cases, financial data might be kept for years. If the workstation does not get a lot of monitoring and it is suspected that an attack might not be readily detected, the backups should be kept for a longer period than normal.
- Inventory involves the system administrator knowing the key files on the workstation that must be checked in the event of an attack. From an operating system perspective these include password files (/etc/passwd) and startup scripts (/etc/rc.d/init/*). However, individual organizations will have other equally critical files that control the mission, such as database files.
- Detection is key to any preparation against an attack. Detection or monitoring allows for the initation of a timely response. This can be a significant factor in limiting the damage done by the attack.
If any of these three protective measures-backup, inventory, or detection-is missing or weak, the other two may be hindered to the point of not being effective. Consider the following scenarios:
- Backups without detection-Without adequate detection, an attacker may be on the workstation for a period of time that spans a number of backups. If the compromise is then detected and the system administrator attempts to restore from backup, they may be restoring compromised files.
- Inventory and weak detection-It is important to keep an inventory or status of key files on the workstation to be better prepared to respond to an attack or incident. However, without quick detection of an attack, some of these files may be changed by users and administrators over the course of normal business. If the valid users make changes on top of an attacker's changes, it will be very difficult to determine what was done by the attacker and how to mitigate the risk.
- Detection without inventory and backups-If inventories of key files and backups are adequately conducted, prompt detection can lead to a response that will limit the attacker's abilities to continue the attack. However, if inadequate backups were done, the recovery from the attack can be hampered. In such cases, the entire workstation may have to be taken offline and the operating system rebuilt from scratch.
The bottom line in responding to an attack or a compromised system is if you can't be 100 percent assured that you have found and corrected everything that an attacker has done, you should take the workstation offline, rebuild the operating system, and reharden the workstation, hopefully, taking the opportunity to establish good backups, inventories, and detection capabilities.
In this tutorial:
- UNIX and Linux Security
- Network and development tools
- UNIX/Linux as a poor target
- Open source issues
- Detecting hardware changes
- Disk partitioning
- Prepare for the eventual attack
- Controlling the Configuration
- Kernel configurations
- Kernel modules
- proc file system
- Operating UNIX Safely
- Uncommon services
- Processes controlling processes
- The chkconfig command
- Controlling users
- Encryption and certificates
- Hardening UNIX
- Packet filtering with iptables