Iptables and NAT, SNAT, and DNAT
Our Linux-based iptables firewall is going to perform several jobs:
- Packet filtering
- Network Address Translation (NAT)
Packet filtering is an extremely powerful, flexible mechanism that lets us perform all manner of mojo even on encrypted transmissions because TCP/IP packet headers are not encrypted. iptables rules filter on addresses, protocols, port numbers, and every other part of a TCP/IP packet header; it does not perform any sort of data inspection or filtering.
Having routing built-in a nice convenience that lets you pack a lot of functionality into a single device and into a few iptables rules.
NAT is the magic that lets you share a single public IP address with a whole private subnet, and to run public servers with private nonroutable addresses. Suppose you have a typical low-cost DSL Internet account. You have only a single public IP address, and a LAN of 25 workstations, laptops, and servers, protected by a nice iptables NAT firewall. Your entire network will appear to the outside world as a single computer. (Canny network gurus can penetrate NAT firewalls, but it isn't easy.) Source NAT (SNAT) rewrites the source addresses of all outgoing packets to the firewall address.
It works the other way as well. While having public routable IP addresses is desirable for public services, like web and mail servers, you can get by on the cheap without them and run public servers on private addresses. Destination NAT (DNAT) rewrites the destination address, which is the firewall address, to the real server addresses, then iptables forwards incoming traffic to these servers.
Someday, when IPv6 is widely implemented, we can say good-bye to NAT, except for those times when we really want it. It is useful for stretching the limited pool of IPv4 addresses, and unintentionally provides some security benefits. But, it also creates a host of routing problems. Protocols that have to traverse NAT, like FTP, IRC, SMTP, and HTTP have all kinds of ingenious hacks built into them to make it possible. Peer protocols like BitTorrent, instant messaging, and session initiation protocol (SIP) are especially challenging to get through NAT.
iptables and TCP/IP Headers
iptables reads the fields in packet headers, but not the data payload, so it's no good for content filtering.
When you're studying the different protocols, you'll run into conflicting terminology. To be strictly correct, IP and UDP move datagrams, TCP exchanges segments, and ICMP packets are messages. In the context of iptables, most admins just say "packets," though you run the risk of annoying pedantic network engineers. The important part is understanding that every data transmission is broken into a series of packets that travel independently over the network, often taking different routes. Then, when they arrive at their destination, the TCP protocol reassembles them in the correct order. Each packet contains in its headers all the information necessary for routers to forward it to its destination. IP and UDP are unreliable protocols because they do not have delivery confirmations, but this makes them very fast. TCP takes care of delivery confirmations, sequence numbers, and error-checking, so it incurs a bit of overhead, but gains reliability. TCP/IP together are extremely reliable.
In this tutorial:
- Building a Linux Firewall
- Iptables and NAT, SNAT, and DNAT
- Assembling a Linux Firewall Box
- Configuring Network Interface Cards on Debian
- Configuring Network Interface Cards on Fedora
- Identifying Which NIC Is Which
- Building an Internet-Connection Sharing Firewall on a Dynamic WAN IP Address
- Building an Internet-Connection Sharing Firewall on a Static WAN IP Address
- Displaying the Status of Your Firewall
- Turning an iptables Firewall Off
- Starting iptables at Boot, and Manually Bringing Your Firewall Up and Down
- Testing Your Firewall
- Configuring the Firewall for Remote SSH Administration
- Allowing Remote SSH Through a NAT Firewall
- Multiple SSH Host Keys Past NAT
- Running Public Services on Private IP Addresses
- Setting Up a Single-Host Firewall
- Setting Up a Server Firewall
- Configuring iptables Logging
- Writing Egress Rules