Public key encryption, as noted previously, relies on key pairs. Digital signatures rely on the property of public key encryption that allows data encrypted with an entity's secret key to be decrypted with the public key of the pair. The sender calculates a secure hash on the data to be signed and then encrypts the result using a secret key. The recipient calculates the same hash and then decrypts the encrypted value attached by the sender. If the two values match, the recipient knows that the owner of the public key was the entity that signed the message and that the message was not modified during transmission.
The RSA public key encryption algorithm can be used for digital signatures: The signing entity creates a hash of the data to be signed and then encrypts that hash with its own secret key. The certifying entity then calculates the same hash on the data being received, decrypts the signature using the signing entity's public key, and compares the two values. If the hash is the same as the decrypted signature, then the data is certified.
Digital signatures carry with them several implications.
- A signature that can be certified indicates that the message was received without any alteration from the time it was signed to the time it was received.
- If a signature cannot be certified, then the message was corrupted or tampered with in transit, the signature was calculated incorrectly, or the signature was corrupted or tampered with in transit. In any case, an uncertifiable signature does not necessarily imply any wrongdoing but does require that the message be resigned and resent in order to be accepted.
- If a signature is certified, it means that the entity associated with the public key was the only entity that could have signed it. In other words, the entity associated with the public key cannot deny having signed the message. This is called nonrepudiation and is an important feature of digital signatures.
There are other mechanisms for doing digital signatures, but RSA is probably the most widely used one and is implemented in the most popular Internet products.
In this tutorial:
- IP Security
- IP Security Issues
- Security Goals
- Encryption and Authentication Algorithms
- Symmetric Encryption
- Public Key Encryption
- Key Management
- Secure Hashes
- Digital Signature
- IPSEC: The Protocols
- IP and IPSEC
- Security Associations
- Using Security Associations
- Tunnel and Transport Mode
- Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
- Authentication Header
- Calculating the Integrity Check Value (ICV)
- IPsec Headers in Action
- Implementing and Deploying IPSEC